Irish HEIs and China: Unfinished Business (Part 1/2)

The most recent headline on national newspapers in Ireland which involves China seems to be controversial for many. To be specific, it is a report by Irish Times in which it was revealed that “University College Dublin (UCD) has agreed with the Chinese government to jointly operate a controversial new Confucius Institute on the Belfield campus until at least 2066, contracts between the two parties reveal.”

Although I do not intend to focus on this particular case – given my limited knowledge about any Confucius Institute in general – it is interesting to have a look, from a historical perspective, how Irish higher education institutions have developed their relationships with China.

Diplomatic relations were established between China and Ireland on June 22, 1979, less than a year later than the Chinese economic reform was started in December 1978 by Deng Xiaoping.

The number of Chinese students venturing overseas started increasing in the 1990s and has been further exploding since the year 2000. During the past two decades, there was a shift of the population makeup from more adults with families to more young students.

According to the UNESCO Institute of Statistics, there were 694,400 Chinese students studying abroad in 2012, accounting for nearly 20 per cent of total mobile students in the world. With a total of 189,500 students pursuing education abroad, India was ranked second and followed by Republic of Korea (123,700) and Germany (117,600). Top five destination countries for Chinese students were the US, Japan, Australia, the UK and Republic of Korea (Figure 1). In 2012, a total of 210,452 Chinese students enrolled at American HEIs, accounting for above 30 per cent of all Chinese students who studied abroad in the same year. The top five destination countries combined attracted around 75 per cent of Chinese students.

Figure 1: China as a country of origin

China as a origin country

Source: UNESCO.

In comparison, Ireland hosted 1,471 Chinese students in 2012 and was ranked 23rd in the list of country, after a couple of other small European countries such as Sweden and Finland. In 2012, the total number of mobile students hosted by Irish HEIs was 11,100, of which 2,062 were from the UK, 1,471 from China and 1,044 from the US (Figure 2). Although China was among the top three countries of origin of mobile students for Ireland, the total number of Chinese students in Ireland only accounted for 2.1 per cent of all Chinese students studying abroad.

Figure 2: Ireland as a destination country

Ireland as a destination

Source: UNESCO.

From a global perspective, there have been increasing choice and competition for international students (Figure 3). Data from the OECD shows that a number of new players have emerged on the international education market while the market share of some of the most popular countries has decreased during the period of 2000-2012. Countries such as Canada, Russia and Spain have experienced significant increase of the number of foreign students. In contrast, the share of international students in the US dropped from 23 per cent to less than 17 per cent between 2000 and 2011.

Figure 3: Trends in international education market shares (2000, 2012)

Trends in international education market shares 2000 and 2012

Source: OECD.

Ireland, although not considered a major destination country by international standards, it has experienced significant growth levels of international students over the last decade or so. Education in Ireland has been publishing data on international students since 2004, with the most recent data being released for the year of 2011-12.

It should be mentioned that Education in Ireland and UNESCO/OECD seem to have different systems of data collection, which leads to obvious mis-matches between the two data sources.

Excluding those offshore students, the data from Education in Ireland shows that in 2003-04 there were 18,608 international students enrolled at Irish HEIs, and the number increased to 30,531 in 2011-12 (Figure 4).

Figure 4: International students in Ireland, 2003-04 to 2011-12

International students in Ireland

Source: Education in Ireland.

Table 1 below further shows the number of Chinese students studying in Irish HEIs – again, this number excludes offshore students – during the same period. While the number increased from 2,874 in 2003-04 to 3,573 in 2007-08, it has dropped sharply ever since. In 2011-12, the number of Chinese students in Ireland was smaller than that in 2003-04. Table 1 also clearly indicates that the share of Chinese students in the total international students has been declining since the data collection began in 2003-04. In 2011-12, Chinese students just accounted for 9 per cent of all international students in Ireland, decreasing from over 15 per cent in 2003-04.

Table 1: Number of Chinese students in Ireland, 2003-04 to 2011-12

Number of Chinese students As % of total international students
2003-2004 2,874 15.4
2005-2006 3,465 13.7
2007-2008 3,573 13.1
2009-2010 3,355 13.0
2011-2012 2,751 9.0

Source: Education in Ireland.

As already mentioned, all of the data presented above does not include those students who are offshore. In its report – International Students in Irish Higher Education 2011-2012 – Education in Ireland claimed that “23% of Ireland’s international students are offshore [in 2011-12] and this had led to a shift in the profiles of some countries of origin”. The example given in the report, interestingly, was exactly China. The report continued to say that “46% of Chinese students are now studying offshore and the numbers based in Ireland have dropped by 10% (300) in one year”.

Indeed, when including both onshore and offshore students, China overtook the US as the country where most international students in Ireland were from. More specifically, while 2,751 Chinese students were studying in Ireland, another 2,349 were enrolled at distance education programmes. The US showed a contrast pattern to China, with only 31 American students were offshore, in comparison to a total of 4,415 onshore students.

In terms of tuition income, offshore students seem to have a rather limited impact. Whilst Education in Ireland reported that tuition income was about €230 million in 2011-12, just under €8 million was contributed by offshore students. It was highlighted that the tuition figure recorded from offshore students was “only the royalty … repatriated back to Ireland”. The full impact of distance and offshore students needs to be further examined.

[To be continued]


The Economist’s Special Report on Universities

In its print edition released on March 28th, 2015, The Economist included a 19-page special report on universities, in which a wide range of issues were covered.

The opening statement made was that, “More and more money is being spent on higher education. Too little is known about whether it is worth it.” The underlying reason for this statement was, it seemed, a mismatch between excellence and equity. To be specific, it was argued in the report that the American model of higher education – which is spreading across the world right now – “is good at producing excellence, but needs to get better at providing access to decent education at a reasonable cost”.

A further issue, which is related to the excellence vs. equity debate and discussed in much detail was that too much focus was on the research side and too little focus was on the education side in the global university marketplace. The report claimed that, “Universities are paid on the basis of research, not educational, output.” There is little doubt that research output is better measured than educational output. Although there is room for improvement in the measurement of research activities, it is generally considered that educational output, e.g. how well students learn from teaching, is much more complex.

The lengthy report includes five main articles, with each of them dealing a specific aspect of the global higher education sector. The first article – Excellence v equity – looks at the key question this report aims to tackle. The second article – Rankings – covers the hot topic in the last decade or so, i.e. how universities – with support from their government in many cases – have been trying hard to climb up the rankings. Titled Privatisation, the third article examines the increasing importance of private sources of income for universities, especially in the context of the fiscal crisis. The fourth article (America) is dedicated to the country with the largest higher education sector. The last article – Policy options – reviews the evidence given in the report and attempts to provide policy suggestions for the key questions mentioned above.

It is all down to money in the end. While the last article provides some “ideas for delivering equity as well as excellence”, it rightly points out that “the question is how higher education can deliver both equity and excellence without breaking the bank”. This special report is useful in the way that it provides a global view of the higher education sector, with the potential of countries learning from each other. Nevertheless, given the complexity and diversity of the sector across countries, how effective those suggestions would be remains to be seen.

Besides the description, analysis and case studies given in the report, the charts in the report are very interesting as they well illustrate some facts and comparisons at an international level. In this blog, I would like to follow the idea of a couple of those figures by adding the data of Ireland in order to show how Ireland compares against its counterparts around the world. The figures from The Economist are also included as references.

Chart 1a below compares, in Ireland, the changes of total passenger cars registrations, total enrollment number in tertiary education and GDP per capita in current US $ between 2000 and 2012. Chart 1b reveals the growth of tertiary enrollments around the globe between 1995 and 2012 and its key message is that “so hungry is the world for higher education that enrollment is growing faster than purchases of that ultimate consumer good, the car”.

Charts 1a and 1b show significant differences between Ireland and the world.

The most obvious difference is that total cars registrations in Ireland has declined sharply after 2000, while that number in the world has steadily increased. It might be due to the fact that the increase of cars registrations mainly come from developing countries. Although enrollment number in tertiary education in Ireland has increased between 2000 and 2012, but the country’s GDP per capita has been growing at a much faster rate. After the 2008 financial crisis, the GDP per capita level has dropped significantly, but in 2012, the level was still nearly 1.85 times of that in 2000. It might be true that the massification of higher education has been impressive in the world, but it was less so in Ireland.

Chart 1a: Never mind the car, get the degree (Ireland, 2000=100)

Chart 1a

Sources: Society of the Irish Motor Industry (SIMI); UNESCO; World Bank.

Chart 1b: Never mind the car, get the degree (Global, 1995=100)

Chart 1b

Source: The Economist.

Chart 2a, using recently released data from Times Higher Education (THE), shows the number of universities around the world ranked in top 200. As expected, the rankings are dominated by the US and the UK, followed by countries such as Germany, the Netherlands, Australia and Canada. There was only one university from Ireland – Trinity College Dublin (TCD) – among the top 200, while University College Dublin (UCD) fell out of top 200 in world rankings.

Chart 2b takes into consideration of the size of country and shows the number of top 200 universities per 10m population. Ireland is in the middle of the ranking which is led by countries such as Switzerland, the Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden. With a population of 8.1 million in 2013, a total of seven universities based at Switzerland are among the top 200. In comparison, Ireland had a population of 4.6 million in 2013, but there is just one Irish university made into the top 200 list in 2014-15.

Chart 2a: Number of universities in THE World University Rankings top 200, 2014-15

Chart 2a

Source: Times Higher Education.

Chart 2b: Top 200 universities per 10m people

Chart 2b

Sources: Times Higher Education; World Bank.

There are a few more interesting figures in the special report but comparable data for Ireland is not easily accessible. Overall, the debate about excellence and equity of higher education is an interesting one and has been highlighted in a series of government reports in Ireland. The figures shown above seem to suggest that Ireland is facing fierce competition from other countries to build globally leading universities. Probably, both excellence and equity are in great need of attention from policy makers in Ireland.